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How Do Transformers Work?

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-12-04      Origin: Site

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1. How do oil filled power transformer work?

2. How do distribution transformers work?

3. How do dry type transformer work?

4. How do oil-immersed transformer work?

5. How do isolation transformer work?

6. How do autotransformer work?

7. How do self-cooling transformer work?

8. How do auto-isolation transformer work?

9. How do grounding transformer work?

10. How do instrument transformer work?

11. How do iron core transformer work?

12. How do phase-shifting transformer work?

13. How do high frequency transformer work?

14. How do resonant transformer work?

15. How do power transformer work?



1.How do oil filled power transformer work?


A transformer for power is a transformer used to change the voltage and current levels in a power system. It is mainly used in the power transmission, transformation and distribution process in the power system to realize the transmission and distribution of power. Power transformers usually operate at low frequencies (50/60 Hz).


The working principle of a oil immersed power transformer is similar to that of a general transformer. It is mainly based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. Here's how a power transformer works:


1. Electromagnetic induction: According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, when a changing current passes through a coil, an electromotive force (voltage) will be induced in another adjacent coil. In a power transformer, by changing the input current in the primary winding, a corresponding output voltage can be induced in the secondary winding.



2. Main coil and secondary coil: The power transformer consis

ts of two or more windings, which are called main winding and secondary winding respectively. The primary winding is usually connected to the input source, while the secondary winding is connected to the output load.


3. Transformation ratio: The transformation ratio of a transformer refers to the turns ratio of the main winding and the secondary winding. According to the basic principle of a transformer, the ratio between the output voltage and the input voltage is related to the turns ratio of the windings.


4. Energy transmission: When current flows into the main winding, an output voltage corresponding to the input voltage is induced in the secondary winding through magnetic coupling. This allows the power transformer to carry high voltage over long distances and provide the required low voltage at the appropriate location.


5. Power transmission and efficiency: The power transformer will produce some losses during the energy transmission process, such as resistance loss and hysteresis loss. In order to improve transmission efficiency, the design of power transformers needs to consider suitable materials, winding structures and cooling systems.



2. How do oil filled distribution transformers work?


Oil filled distribution transformer is an important device in the power system that converts the power from high-voltage transmission lines into low-voltage power suitable for household, commercial and industrial users. It is commonly used in the power distribution networks of substations, cities, and communities to deliver high voltages to the voltage levels required by users. Here's how a distribution transformer works:


The working principle of the distribution transformer:


1. Step-down function: The main job of the distribution transformer is to reduce the high voltage from the transmission line to the low voltage suitable for consumer electricity. In the power system, electrical energy is usually delivered at high voltages to reduce energy loss during transmission. However, high voltages are not suitable for domestic and industrial users, so distribution transformers are needed to reduce the voltage to an appropriate level.


2. Windings and cores: Distribution transformers usually have two windings, one is called the primary winding (input winding) and the other is called the secondary winding (output winding). These two windings are wound around an iron core that helps to enhance magnetic field transfer and improve energy conversion efficiency.


3. Turns ratio: The ratio of turns of a distribution transformer determines the relationship between the input voltage and the output voltage. By adjusting the number ratio, different voltage transformations can be realized. In general, the number of turns in the input winding is more and the number of turns in the output winding is less to achieve the step-down function.


4. Magnetic induction and electromagnetic coupling: When the delivered alternating current passes through the primary winding, the resulting alternating magnetic field will induce an electromotive force in the secondary winding. This electromotive force will cause the current to flow in the secondary windings, which will transfer the electrical energy to the user's load.


5. Insulation and protection: Distribution transformers are usually equipped with insulation materials and protection devices to ensure the normal operation and protection of the transformer. These measures help prevent overloads, short circuits, and other malfunctions.


6. Distribution Networks: Distribution transformers are connected to the distribution networks of cities and communities, delivering electrical energy to a variety of users, including homes, commercial buildings, and industrial facilities.


3. How do dry type transformer work?

A dry-type transformer is a type of transformer that does not use a liquid cooling medium, such as oil, between the windings and the core. They use solid insulating materials, such as insulating paper and insulating plywood, to form an insulating layer around the insulating windings. Dry-type transformers are widely used in indoor environments such as commercial buildings, industrial facilities, and underground distribution stations, as well as in places where liquid leakage needs to be prevented. Here's how a dry-type transformer works:


Working principle of dry-type transformer:


1. Insulation and winding: The windings of the dry-type transformer are wrapped with insulating paper and insulating plywood to prevent electrical short circuits between the windings and between the windings and the core. Insulating materials provide the necessary electrical isolation and insulation.


2. Windings and iron core: The windings of dry-type transformers are wound on the iron core, which helps to enhance magnetic field transmission and improve energy conversion efficiency. Compared with liquid-cooled transformers, the windings of dry-type transformers require better heat dissipation design to ensure that the temperature does not rise too high.


3. Air cooling: Since there is no liquid cooling medium, dry-type transformers use air for natural cooling. This means that the transformer must have sufficient heat dissipation surface to transfer the generated heat to the surrounding air. Some dry-type transformers may also be equipped with fans or ducts to enhance cooling.


4. Turns ratio and voltage transformation: The working principle of dry-type transformer is similar to other transformer types. When an alternating current passes through the input winding, the generated magnetic field induces an electromotive force in the output winding, thereby achieving voltage conversion.


5. Insulation requirements: Since there is no liquid cooling medium to provide isolation, dry-type transformers need to use insulating materials and insulating structures to ensure electrical isolation between windings as well as between windings and iron cores. This helps prevent electrical failures and fires.


6. Environmentally friendly: Dry-type transformers are more environmentally friendly than liquid-cooled transformers because they do not create the risk of liquid leakage and environmental pollution.


4. How do oil-immersed transformer work?

oil filled Distribution Transformer

Oil-immersed Transformer, also known as oil-immersed transformer, is a type of transformer that uses oil as a cooling and insulating medium between the windings and the core. Oil-immersed transformers are commonly used in large power systems such as power station, substations and power transmission grids, as well as in applications requiring high power conversion. The following is the working principle of oil-immersed transformer:


Working principle of oil-immersed transformer:


1. Cooling and insulating medium: Oil-immersed transformers use insulating oil with better insulation properties, such as mineral oil or vegetable oil, to act as both cooling and insulating media. This oil has very good insulating properties, prevents electrical short circuits, and helps transfer the heat generated from the transformer to the outside environment.


2. Windings and core: The windings and core of oil-immersed transformers are soaked in oil to provide cooling and insulation. Oil can effectively transfer heat from the windings and core to the external environment, thereby maintaining the normal operating temperature of the transformer.


3.  Oil circulation and cooling: Oil-immersed transformers usually have a cooling system in which oil circulates to transfer heat to the cooling medium and dissipate heat through the radiator. This helps maintain the transformer's operating temperature and ensures its proper operation.


4. Electrical isolation: The oil of oil-immersed transformers is not only used as a cooling medium, but also as an electrical isolation medium. The windings and core are immersed in oil, which provides electrical isolation and prevents electrical shorts between the windings and between the windings and the core.


5. The working principle of oil-immersed transformer is similar to other transformer types. When the number of turns of the coil is changed, the magnetic field generated will induce an electromotive force in the output winding, thereby achieving voltage conversion.


6. Protection and monitoring: Oil-immersed transformers are usually equipped with various protection devices and monitoring systems to ensure their normal operation and prevent overload, short circuit and other faults.


5. How do isolation transformer work?

Isolation transformer

An isolation transformer is a special type of transformer whose main function is to provide electrical isolation so that the circuits between the input and output are isolated from each other, thereby preventing current from flowing through the circuit connecting them. Isolation transformers are usually used in the following areas:


1. Electrical isolation: The main function of an isolation transformer is to create electrical isolation between input and output, preventing current, noise and interference from propagating from one circuit to another. This is critical to protecting equipment and personnel.


2. Earth wire isolation: Isolation transformers can be used to isolate ground wires to prevent earth wire interference between different devices, thereby reducing the spread of noise and interference.


3. Voltage conversion: Although the main purpose of an isolation transformer is to provide isolation, it can also be used to convert an input voltage to a different output voltage, although this is usually not its primary purpose. The working principle of an isolation transformer is similar to that of an ordinary transformer, but its design pays more attention to electrical isolation. It consists of two main coils: primary coil (input coil) and secondary coil (output coil). There is no direct electrical connection between the two coils, they are coupled to each other through a magnetic field.


The working principle is as follows:


1. Electromagnetic induction: When AC current is passed into the main coil, it will generate an alternating magnetic field. This magnetic field penetrates into the secondary coil, inducing an alternating voltage in the secondary coil.


2. Transformer principle: According to the basic principle of a transformer, the ratio between the output voltage and the input voltage depends on the division ratio of the primary coil and the secondary coil. In isolation transformers, they are usually designed with equal turns ratios, so the output voltage is the same as the input voltage.


3. Electrical isolation: Since there is no electrical connection between the main coil and the secondary coil, the input and output circuits are isolated, thereby achieving electrical isolation.


6. How do autotransformer work?

Autotransformer

Autotransformer is another type of transformer, which is different from the isolation transformer in terms of working principle and application. Autotransformers do not have the same stringent requirements for electrical isolation as isolation transformers because their primary function is voltage conversion rather than providing electrical isolation.

The working principle of autotransformer is as follows:


1. Single coil: The autotransformer has only one coil, unlike the isolation transformer which has two independent coils. This coil is usually divided into two parts, one part is the input side (high voltage side) and the other part is the output side (low voltage side).


2. Shared turns: The input side and the output side share a part of the turns in the autotransformer. In other words, the two sides are connected by sharing the same part of the coil.


3. Voltage conversion: The autotransformer realizes the voltage conversion function by sharing a part of the coil. When a high voltage is applied to the input side, the number of turns in the common section causes a relatively low voltage to be produced on the output side.


4. Turns ratio: The voltage transformation ratio of the autotransformer depends on the number of turns shared by the input side and the output side. The transformation ratio is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in the common part to the total number of turns in the entire coil.


7. How do self-cooling transformer work?

Self-cooling transformers use natural cooling without the need for external fans and are suitable for some small power transmission and distribution systems.


8. How do auto-isolation transformer work?

Auto-isolation transformers combine the characteristics of auto-isolation and isolation transformers and are often used in special control and application scenarios.


9. How do grounding transformer work?


Grounding transformer is a special type of transformer, mainly used in neutral point earthing systems to provide neutral point earthing of the system. It’s application in power systems is to achieve safe and reliable operation of electrical systems

The working principle of a grounding transformer is as follows:


1. Neutral point grounding: In power systems, for the purpose of safety and fault identification, the neutral point of the power system is usually grounded. This means that there is an electrical connection between the neutral point and ground so that current can flow back to ground in the event of a fault.


2. Neutral point connection: One side of the grounding transformer (usually the high-voltage side) is connected to the neutral point of the power system, and the other side (usually the low-voltage side) is connected to the ground. This connection method allows a certain voltage drop between the high-voltage side of the transformer and the neutral point, while the low-voltage side remains grounded.


3. Electrical isolation: The grounding transformer provides electrical isolation between the high-voltage side and the low-voltage side to prevent fault current on the high-voltage side from flowing directly to the low-voltage side. This helps protect equipment and personnel on the low voltage side.


4. Fault current guidance: When a single-phase ground fault occurs in the power system, the fault current will flow back to the low-voltage side of the transformer through the high-voltage side of the grounding transformer, and the fault point can be detected and located through the fault indicator in the grounding system.


Grounding transformers play an important role in power systems. They can effectively reduce ground fault currents in the system and help maintain stable operation of the electrical system. In addition, it can also guide fault current when a fault occurs, helping operation and maintenance personnel quickly locate the fault and take measures to repair it.


10. How do instrument transformer work?

lnstrument Transformer is a special type of transformer used to measure, monitor and protect current and voltage in power systems. They play a key role in power systems, helping to deliver accurate measurement signals for monitoring, control and protection operations.


Induction transformers include two types: Current Transformer and Voltage Transformer .


How a current transformer (CT) works: Current transformers are used to measure large currents in power systems, usually reducing high currents to a range suitable for measuring instruments. Its working principle is as follows:

1. Main coil: The main coil of the current transformer delivers high current (usually hundreds of amps to tens of thousands of amps) into the transformer.


2. Secondary coil: The main coil is surrounded by a secondary coil, and the number of turns in the secondary coil is relatively small. This construction results in a current scaling conversion that converts high current into low current.


3. Magnetic coupling: The current in the main coil induces the current in the secondary coil under the action of the magnetic field, and the current is reduced due to the proportion of coil turns.


The output current of the current transformer is proportional to the current of the main coil. It usually outputs a standardized small current, such as 5A or 1A, to facilitate connection to measuring instruments or protective equipment.


Working principle of voltage transformer (VT): Voltage transformer is used to measure high voltage in the power system and reduce the high voltage to a safe range. Its working principle is as follows:


1. Main winding: The main winding of the voltage transformer is connected to the high voltage side and receives high voltage signals.


2. Secondary winding: The number of turns in the secondary winding is relatively small, causing the high voltage of the main winding to be converted into a lower voltage.


3. Magnetic coupling: The high voltage signal is induced into the secondary winding under the action of the magnetic field, thereby realizing voltage conversion. The output voltage of the voltage transformer is proportional to the voltage of the main winding. The output is usually a standardized small voltage, such as 110V or 220V for easy connection to measuring instruments or protective equipment.


11. How do Iron core transformer work?

Iron core transformer is the most common type of transformer, and its working principle is based on electromagnetic induction. It consists of an iron core and at least two coils (main coil and secondary coil). The presence of the iron core enhances the magnetic coupling effect of the transformer, thereby improving the efficiency of energy transfer. Here is how an iron core transformer works:


1. Iron core: The iron core is usually made of magnetic materials, such as silicon steel sheets. This material has low magnetic permeability, which reduces eddy current losses. The presence of the core strengthens the magnetic circuit of the transformer, making it easier for magnetic fields to pass through the coils.


2. Main coil: The main coil is the coil connected to the input power supply, usually called the high voltage side. When AC current flows through the main coil, it generates an alternating magnetic field.


3. Secondary coil: The secondary coil is the coil connected to the output load, usually called the low-voltage side. The alternating magnetic field generated in the primary coil penetrates into the secondary coil, thereby inducing an alternating voltage in the secondary coil.


4. Electromagnetic induction: According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, when a magnetic field penetrates a coil, an electromotive force (voltage) will be induced in the coil. Therefore, the voltage in the secondary coil is related to the magnetic field changes in the primary coil.


5. Transformation principle: The transformation ratio of the iron core transformer is determined by the turns ratio of the main coil and the secondary coil. According to the basic principle of transformer, the ratio between input voltage and output voltage depends on the turns ratio of the coil. More turns in the secondary coil will result in a higher output voltage, fewer turns in the secondary coil will result in a lower output voltage.


12. How do phase-shifting transformer work?

Phase Shifting Transformer

Phase-Shifting Transformer is a special type of transformer used to adjust the phase angle between different branches in the power system to achieve stable operation of the power system and optimize power distribution. It plays an important role in transmission and substations of power systems.


The working principle of a phase-shifting transformer is as follows:


1. Phase shift transformation: Phase shift transformer realizes phase shift transformation by controlling the phase angle change in the transformer. Usually phase-shifting transformers have an adjustable transformation ratio, which can introduce different phase differences between the main and secondary windings of the transformer.


2. Transformer structure: Phase-shifting transformer usually consists of an ordinary transformer and a phase modulation device. The phase modulation device can be a set of phase modulation transformers, or some other phase adjustment components, such as magnetic pole adjustment devices.


3. Phase adjustment: The phase adjustment device can change the output voltage phase angle of the transformer relative to the input voltage by changing the current phase difference between the main and secondary windings. This is very useful for adjusting the phase difference between different branches in the power system to achieve optimization and stability of power distribution.


4. Power control: Phase-shifting transformers can be used to control the power flow in power systems, especially under complex network topology or load changes. By adjusting the phase difference of the transformer, the power flow direction can be changed, thereby adjusting the power distribution of the system.


5.The application of phase-shifting transformers helps improve the reliability and stability of power systems. For example, using phase-shifting transformers between transmission lines can solve the problem of power flow between transmission lines, thereby reducing the load on the power lines and reducing current losses in the system.


13. How do high frequency transformer work?

High-Frequency Transformer

High-Frequency Transformer is a transformer specially used in high-frequency circuits. Its operating frequency is usually in the range of tens of kilohertz to several megahertz. Compared with transformers in ordinary power systems, high-frequency transformers have some differences in design and working principles.


The working principle of high frequency transformer is as follows:


1. Magnetic coupling principle: The working principle of high-frequency transformers is based on electromagnetic induction, which is similar to ordinary transformers. When high-frequency alternating current passes through the main coil (input side), an alternating magnetic field is generated. This alternating magnetic field penetrates into the secondary coil (output side), inducing an alternating voltage in the secondary coil.


2. Winding design: The windings of high-frequency transformers usually use special insulation and materials to cope with the special requirements of high-frequency signals. In addition, due to the higher operating frequency, the resistance and inductance of the wire will have a greater impact, so the winding structure needs to be carefully designed to reduce losses.


3. Magnetic core selection: In high-frequency transformers, choosing the appropriate core material becomes particularly important. High-frequency signals will cause eddy current losses and hysteresis losses in the magnetic core, so low-loss core materials need to be selected, such as magnetic iron oxide or nickel-zinc materials.


4. Coupling and transmission efficiency: The design of high-frequency transformers requires special attention to magnetic coupling efficiency and transmission efficiency. Due to the characteristics of high-frequency signals, the resonant frequency and electrical characteristics of the transformer will affect the transmission efficiency, so precise matching and tuning are required.


5. High-frequency transformers are commonly used in various high-frequency circuits, such as radio frequency communication equipment, electronic equipment, frequency converters, inverters, AC-DC power supplies, etc. Due to the special requirements for high-frequency signal transmission, the design and manufacturing of high-frequency transformers require higher technical requirements and accuracy.


14. How do resonant transformer work?

Resonant transformer is a special type of transformer that is mainly used in high-frequency circuits, especially in applications such as resonant circuits and inverters. The working principle of air-core transformers is based on the phenomena of inductive coupling and resonance.


The working principle of resonant transformer is as follows:


1. Resonance phenomenon: Resonance means that at a certain frequency, the energy exchange between the inductor and capacitor components in the circuit reaches the maximum. Resonant transformers are often used in resonant circuits where inductive and capacitive elements exchange energy through coupling through the transformer.


2. Resonant frequency: The operating frequency of resonant transformers is usually set near the resonant frequency. This is to make the inductor and capacitor in the circuit resonate at a specific frequency, allowing for efficient energy transfer.


3. Transformer coupling: The coils of resonance transformers are usually designed to be hollow and can have multiple coils. These coils are connected by electromagnetic coupling. In a resonant circuit, inductive and capacitive elements between different coils can form a resonant circuit.


4. Energy transmission: When the input high-frequency signal matches the resonant frequency of the circuit, the inductor and capacitor components will exchange energy in the resonant state. Coupling of resonant transformers transfers energy from one coil to another.


5. Application: Resonant transformers are widely used in high-frequency circuits such as resonant inverters, resonant power supplies, and wireless energy transmission systems. In these applications, resonant circuits can achieve efficient energy conversion and transmission, thereby increasing the efficiency of the system.


15. How do power transformer work?

Small power transformer

Power Transformer is an important device used in power systems, used to transfer and transform electrical energy between different voltage levels. It is one of the core components in the power system and is used to transmit electrical energy from substation to substations and then distribute it to industrial, commercial and domestic users.


Working principle of power transformer:


The working principle of power transformer is based on the law of electromagnetic induction and the principle of energy conservation. When alternating current passes through a coil (winding), an alternating magnetic field is generated around the winding. This alternating magnetic field induces an electromotive force in the other winding, causing current to flow in the second winding.


Power transformers usually have two windings, one is the input winding (primary winding) and the other is the output winding (secondary winding). These two windings are wound around a common iron core in order to enhance the magnetic field transfer and energy conversion efficiency.


Depending on the ratio of the number of turns in the winding, the power transformer can achieve the function of stepping up or stepping down. When the number of turns of the input winding is less and the number of turns of the output winding is more, the transformer is called a step-up transformer; Conversely, when the number of turns in the input winding is more and the number of turns in the output winding is less, the transformer is called a step-down transformer. By adjusting the turns ratio, different voltage and current relationships can be achieved between the input and output.

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